Roman cuisine is generally seasonal and simple, with roots in ancient Roman and old Jewish traditions. Many of the recipes are based on what poor people could obtain easily and locally and include ingredients like artichokes (a thistle that was not historically considered very edible) and zucchini flowers (part of the plant usually thrown away). Quinto quarto, or the fifth fourth, is also found in Roman dishes. It includes all the parts of the animals not typically considered “meat” - the tripe, heart, intestines, brain, and so forth, what we refer to as “offal” in English. Other popular vegetables include peas and fava beans. Lamb, goat, and pork are the traditional meats served in Roman cuisine. And, of course, there are the cheeses – Pecorino romano and ricotta!
As for pasta, long noodles like spaghetti are the most popular, but you'll also find fettucine and tagliatelle and short noodles like farfalle, rigatoni, and penne. Stuffed pastas like ravioli, tortellini, and lasagna are more often found in other regions of Italy. Gnocchi in Rome is made with semolina flour instead of potatoes and, for some reason, usually served on Thursdays. Red sauces are not typically Roman. Instead you'll find pasta served with cacio e pepe (cheese and pepper), aglio e olio (garlic and oil), or carbonara (egg, cheese, and pork).